MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

THERMODYNAMICS


OF.TDH/01



         
Temperature Measurement Bench

Temperature Measuring Bench is used to study different types of temperature measuring techniques using resistance temperature detector (RTD), bi-metric temperature indicator, thermocouples and mercury in glass thermometer etc.
Temperature can be measured by various ranges of sensors. All of these sensors inform temperature by sensing changes in physical characteristics.

OF.TDH/02



         
Pressure Measurement Bench

The apparatus has been designed to allow the suction pressure or delivery pressure of a diaphragm pump to be measured on sloping or vertical manometers and Bourdon gauges, for comparison; and to investigate the calibration and internal workings of a Bourdon gauge.
The apparatus comprises of two units: the manometer and gauge assembly and the calibration of a pressure gauge assembly. The internal mechanism of the gauge is clearly visible through the transparent dial. During test, calibration weights are placed onto the loading platform, which is an integral part of the piston assembly. All air is expelled from the system through a purge hole in the upper part of the cylinder.

OF.TDH/03



         
Changes of States Gases

Knowledge of the gas laws is a fundamental requirement of any training course of in thermodynamics.
The unit Change of State of Gases enables the students to study two changes of state of gases experimentally. Boyle'sLaw deals isothermic (Constant temp.) change of state on the other hand Charle's Law deals isochoric (Constant Pressure) change of state.
Air is used as a test gas and state of change is observed through two transparent vessels.

OF.TDH/04



         
Free & Forced Convection

Heat transfer by Free & forced Convection in a vertical duct is carried out in this unit. Convection is one of the three basic types of heat transfer.
In this process the whole fluid moved from warm zones into cold zones. The vertical duct is constructed in such a way that the air temperature and velocity can be readily measured.
A fan situated at the top of the duct provides the air stream for forced convection experiments. A control panel contains temperature measurement, power control and fan speed control circuits with appropriate instruments.
Air velocity measured with portable anerameter mounted on the on the duct.

OF.TDH/05



         
Thermal & Light Radiation

The unit has been designed to demonstrate the fundamental laws relating to radiation. By performing a series of simple experiments the students may verify the relevant equation appropriate the behavior of radiations.
Thermal radiation is a mode of heat transfer which differs significantly from the other two modes. The fact that radiant energy transfer occurs across a vacuum is often disturbing to students unless the theory relating to properties of electromagnetic waves has been presented.
The engineer is not directly concerned with the mechanism by which heat transfer occurs, but a sound knowledge of the properties and laws relating to the topic are required. By performing a series of simple experiments the student may verify the relevant equations of radiation. The unit Thermal Radiation consists of electrically heated radiant heat and light sources together with a comprehensive range of targets and measuring instruments.

OF.TDH/06



         
Thermal Conductivity of Liquid & Gases

The unit enables the students to understand the principle of thermal conductivity of fluid (Liquid & Gases). It is very important and major topic in the study of heat transfer.
In gases & liquid conduction is due to the collision and diffusion of the molecules during their random motion. The unit consists two coaxial concentric cylindrical plugs with a thin radial clearance in between. The clearance is made extremely small which is 0.3 mm to reduce the natural heat convection. The heat sourced from the centre of the coaxial concentric cylindrical plugs.
The plug is made of copper and has two ports for introducing and venting the test fluid. The plug is placed in the middle of the water jacket.
The jacket has water inlet and drain connections. Three thermocouples are positioned in the heating and cooling cylindrical plugs, respectively. The positioning of the thermocouples and the high thermal conductivities of the materials involved allows student to measure the temperatures of the hot and cold faces of the test fluid. The test module is connected to the control panel for the heater power supply. Power input and temperature readings are digitally displayed on the control panel. A potentiometer on the control panel allows student to vary the heating power of the heating elements

OF.TDH/07



         
Thermal Conductivity Of Building Materials

This unit is design to learn the relative thermal conductivities of typical building materials.
The knowledge of Thermal Conductivity in building materials is essential for design engineer. Basic understand of static heat conduction in building materials is very important for energy efficiency of buildings.
Building materials with large heat conduction lead to a considerable loss of thermal energy and thus to higher consumption of primary energy.

OF.TDH/08



         
Linear and Radial Heat Transfer Unit

Thermal conduction is the mode of heat transfer, which occurs in a material by virtue of a temperature gradient. A solid is chosen for the demonstration of pure conduction since both liquids and gases exhibit excessive convective heat transfer.
In a practical situation, heat conduction occurs in three dimensions, a complexity which often requires extensive computation to analyze. In the laboratory, a single dimensional approach is required to demonstrate the basic law that relates rate of heat flow to temperature gradient and area.
The equipment consists of two heat-conducting specimens, a multi-section bar for the examination of linear conduction and a metal disc for radial conduction. A control panel provides electrical and power digital for display heaters in the specimens as well as the selector switch for data acquisition system. A small flow of cooling water provides a heat sink at the end of the conducting path in each specimen.

OF.TDH/09



         
Marcet Boiler

The unit Marcet Boiler is designed for the students enable them to study the basic principal of thermodynamics which is boiling phenomenon.
The unit is capable to find the relation between the pressure & temperature of water during steam generation.
The temperature & pressure are monitored by digital indicator & a Bourden Tube Pressure gauge. A temperature controller and pressure relief valve s are fitted for safety devices and the system against overpressure.

OF.TDH/10



         
Boiling Heat Transfer Apparatus

Heat transfer is one of the core courses of engineering science. The three primary modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection & radiation. Boiling Heat Transfer has a wide range of industrial application such as in boilers & evaporation. The unit allows the students to visualize and quality different modes of boiling heat transfer.
Experimental measurements are used for estimating the boiling heat transfer coefficient at varying heat flux and in the presence or absence of stirring.
The unit Boiling Heat transfer consists of a high strength clear acrylic cylinder enclosed at top & bottom. At the bottom of tank is a small heating cylinder immersed in a volatile solvent that boils at low pressure. A water cooled condenser present at the top of cylinder for condensation. Sensors are provided for measurement of temperature, pressure, cooling water flow rate & input power.

OF.TDH/11



         
Multi Heat Exchanger Service Unit

The technique of heating and cooling of system is one of the most basic areas of mechanical engineering. The unit Multiple Heat Exchanger enables the students to study two or more heat exchangers like shell and tube, concentric tube and plate under different flow conditions that is counter & parallel flow conditions.
The unit consists of instruments for monitoring and control, multi heat exchanger & a hot water tank with a transfer pump. Outside water supply is used for unit.

OF.TDH/12



         
Plate Type Heat Exchanger

A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another.
In this unit heat transfer is carried out through a Plate Heat Exchanger under different types of flow like Parallel or Counter Flow.
Supply of water is carried out from outside water supply like hydraulic bench. Cold water valve is used to select the type of flow. Instruments for control & monitoring are provided. Pump is used for transfer of hot water through Plate Heat Exchanger.

OF.TDH/13



         
Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger

This unit is used for study the heat transfer through a concentric tube under parallel or counter flow conditions.

OF.TDH/14



         
Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger

This unit is used for study the heat transfer through a shell and tube under parallel or counter flow conditions

OF.TDH/15



         
Cross Flow Heat Exchanger

Heat transfer is the most common phenomenon in many practical applications in energy conservation, transmission and utilization. Heat exchangers play a very important role in energy conservation, transmission and utilization.
Cross Flow Heat Exchangers are one of the most common types of heat exchanger used in countless applications such as automotive radiators, heater cores, condenser & evaporators of HVAC etc.
The unit Cross Flow Heat Exchanger is designed to enables the students to understand the heat transfer rates by free & forced convection. It consists of a vertical air duct. Air is drawn through the duct with the help of a fan. A digital display on the front of the instrumentation unit allows the students to view all experimental data.

OF.TDH/16



         
Laminar-Viscous Flow Heat Transfer Unit

The unit Laminar-Viscous Glow Heat is designed for the students to understand heat transfer between hot oil flowing in laminar glow through an internal tube and all water that flows through the annulus.
The unit consists of top bench frame with panel. Heater tank, electric heater to raise temperature of oil up to 90C & concentric tube heat exchanger allowing the heat between water and oil are available. Instrumentations for the temperature control, flow and temperature measurement are also provided

OF.TDH/17



         
Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger

A heat exchanger is device by which Thermal Energy is transferred from one fluid to another.
The unit Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger provides an opportunity to study heat transfer through a concentric tube under the parallel or counter flow conditions.

OF.TDH/18



         
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The unit Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger is used to study the heat transfer under different conditions like Parallel or Counter Flow conditions.
Supply of water is carried out from outside water supply like hydraulic bench. Cold water valve is used to select the type of flow. Instruments for control & monitoring are provided. Pump is used for transfer of hot water through Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger.

OF.TDH/19



         
Mini Steam Power Plant

The unit Steam Power Plant is specially designed for technical training of students in the area of power plant engineering. Wide range of experiments that can performed enable the students to learn about power engines & machines.
The unit consists diesel fired boiler, steam turbine, steam condenser & power generator. The steam is generated in the boiler is supplied to the turbine & after expansion it flows to the condenser.
The condensate is extracted from condenser using extraction pump. The condenser is cooling water is supplied from a large sump tank using a centrifugal pump. Measuring instruments are provided to measure the pressure & temperature of steam at different points in the cycle. The amount of boiler feed water, condensate & fuel consumption of the boiler are also measured for measurement of boiler efficiency & turbine performance.

OF.TDH/20



         
Flow Demonstration Unit

This unit is made of two glass concentric tubes. In these tubes two fluids flow
(a) Refrigerant which flow in internal tube
(b) hot water flows in external tube.
By using this apparatus student can learn visual demonstration of different type of boiling flow and relation between pressure and temperature effect of flow rate, temperature, pressure and the evaporating process. Also demonstrates the effect of air in condensers.

OF.TDH/21



         
Two Stage Air Compressor

This unit explains about design and function of a two stage compressor and used as a compressed air generation system which are used to drive pneumatic systems and mining machines.
It is easy to operates/handle and students can measure relevant pressure, temperature, volumetric air flow rate, efficiency and can draw compression process on a P-V diagram.

OF.TDH/22



         
Air Flow Reaction Turbine

Turbines are machines which develop torque and shaft power as a result of a momentum change in the fluid which flows through them. The fluid may be a gas, vapor, or liquid. A turbine converts the energy of the steam into work that drives electric generators.
A Reaction Turbine is that turbine in which the fluid pressure drop (and consequent increase of velocity) occurs in the rotor. Therefore, the fluid passes through the stator at an almost constant pressure.
The unit Air Flow Reaction Turbine consists a single stage, axial flow, reaction machine with a throttle valve and belt brake dynamometer. Instrumentation is provided to measure the air supply pressure, mass flow rate, temperature as well as the turbine speed & torque.

OF.TDH/23



         
Nozzle Performance Study System

The unit allows the students to study the performance o a nozzle as either a kinetic energy or thrust producer and also enables to study the effect of inlet and outlet pressure ratio on the mass flow and pressure distribution in nozzle.
Compressed air is supplied to the unit from laboratory source. Convergent and convergent divergent nozzles are available that can be changed rapidly. These nozzles are designed to operate at different theoretical expansion ratios.
Each nozzle is equipped with axial pressure tappings that can be connected to the 8 panel mounted pressure gauges. The unit Nozzle Performance is fully instrumented to measure pressure, mass flow, temperature, thrust and impact force. The operating conditions can be quickly varied to produce results over a wide range of pressure ratios.

OF.TDH/24



         
Air Flow Impulse Turbine

Turbines are machines which develop torque and shaft power as a result of a momentum change in the fluid which flows through them. The fluid may be a gas, vapor, or liquid.
A turbine converts the energy of the steam into work that drives electric generators. An Impulse Turbine is that turbine in which the fluid pressure drop (and consequent increase of velocity) occurs in the stator. Therefore, the fluid passes through the rotor at an almost constant pressure.
The unit Air Flow Impulse Turbine consists a single stage, axial flow, impulse machine with a throttle valve and belt brake dynamometer .Instrumentation is provided to measure the air supply pressure, mass flow rate, temperature as well as the turbine speed & torque.

OF.TDH/25



         
Unsteady State Heat Transfer

The Unsteady State Heat Transfer unit is designed for the investigation of the temperature variation with time and heat flow within solid shapes that are subjected to sudden heating.
The unit consists of a stainless steel water bath and integral flow duct with external water circulating pump. The bath has a capacity of approximately 30 liters and is heated by a thermostatically controlled 3 kW electric heating element in the base of the bath. Adjustment of the thermostat allows the bath to be set to a nominally constant temperature before beginning the experimental procedure.
The heating element incorporates internal thermal protection so that power is switched off in the event of the heater being turned on when not covered by water. However, repeatedly allowing the heater to overheat in this wax should be avoided as it will eventually fail. The control panel is provided having all the necessary wiring, temperature measurements and digital indicators.

OF.TDH/26



         
Film And Dropwise Condensation

Condensation is the change of physical state of matter from gas phase in to liquid phase, and is reverse of vaporization.
The unit Film & Drop Wise Condensation is specially designed to understand Condensation topic for the students. It allows students to visualize both Drop & Film Wise condensation and proceed few experiments to understand the concepts of both.
During condensation very high heat fluxes are possible and provided the heat can be quickly transferred from the condensing surface into the cooling medium, steam using heat exchangers can be compact and effective.

OF.TDH/27



         
Extended Surface Heat Exchanger

The extended surface is most often utilized in the removal of heat from a body.
In this unit you will study and perform calculations for extended surface heat transfer. As part of the experiment you will be using automated data collection instruments and thermocouples.
We will be interested in the performance of an aluminum pin fin available in our laboratory. You should determine the temperature distribution for both free and forced convection flows and compare the experimental measurements with the predicted values.

OF.TDH/28



         
Engine Test Bed

This Engine Test Bed is designed for study purpose for the student to understand the principles and various parameters related to engines. The test set is supplied with a diesel engine and a petrol engine which is a single cylinder, four-stroke; spark ignited and air-cooled.
The engine and dynamometer are carried on a solid base plate resiliently mounted. Included within the framework are the fuel system, which incorporates a fuel tanks and valves, and the air induction system. The instrumentation and control panel are mounted on the front frame.
The engines are supplied with proper adaptors for measuring of temperature at exhaust and lubrication oil tank.

OF.TDH/29



         
Combustion Lab

This unit is mounted on a frame and by using this apparatus student can understand basics of burner and its controls with combustion chamber.
The flame burns in a stainless steel combustion chamber which is water cool and of sufficient size to prevent frame impingement under normal conduction. Observation windows on the side of the chamber allow the flame to be observed.

OF.TDH/30



         
Solar Energy

The unit enables the students to investigate the development and use of solar energy. They will examine the role of the sun as a source of energy and explore how humanity has relied on the sun to provide energy for our lives.
Solar energy can be part of a mixture of renewable energy sources used to meet the need for electricity. Using solar cells, solar energy can be converted into electricity. Solar cells produce direct current DC electricity and an inverter can be used to change this to alternating current AC electricity.
The unit Solar Energy consists of a movable frame having an adjustable virtual solar unit & a collector panel. A control panel is provided having main power switch, water pump switch, heat exchanger fan switch, heater switch, AC/DC inverter & MCB. Instrumentations are also provided for the measurement of various temperatures, currents, voltages and water flow meter etc.

OF.TDH/31



         
Simple Refrigerator

The primary function of a refrigerant is to cool articles or substances down to and maintain them at a temperature lower than the ambient temperature. As heat moves from hot body to its surroundings. Using the same principle refrigerant works by removing heat from a product and transferring that heat to the outside air.
The Simple Refrigerant System is a bench top that contains components which are also used in industrial heat pump and refrigeration system. Main components of the unit are evaporator, compressor, condenser, expansion valve and refrigerant. Instrumentations are provided for the measurement of pressure & temperature.

OF.TDH/32



         
Air Conditioning Lab Unit

Air Conditioning which may be described as the control of the atmosphere so that a desired temperature, humidity, distribution and movement is achieved, is a rapidly expanding activity throughout the world. Obvious applications for air conditioning are homes, hospitals, public meeting places, mines, shops, offices, factories, land, air and sea transport etc.
The unit Air Conditioning Lab Unit consists of a number of components like fans, filters, heat exchangers, humidifiers, a reheater, a cooling unit, condenser and measuring instruments enclosed in a sheet metal casing. Intake to the plant is usually from a clean external atmosphere (plus, in some cases, air recalculated from the building) and delivery from the plant is via ducting to suitable distribution points. Alternatively small self-contained packaged units may be used to air condition individual rooms or enclosures. Instruments panel is provided for the measurement of temperatures, pressures, air flow velocity, humidity etc.

OF.TDH/33



         
Absorption Refrigeration Trainer

Another form of refrigeration that becomes economically attractive when there is a source of inexpensive thermal energy at a temperature of 100 to 200°C is absorption refrigeration. The Absorption Refrigeration Unit enables the student to understand the principles of absorption refrigeration systems in use today. A dual energy source is provided that includes LP gas & electrical. The heat generated by these sources makes ammonia evaporate from a water/ammonia solution. The ammonia vapor rises and condenses into a liquid by flowing, through a finned heat exchanger.
The water is separated off and returns to the absorber. The ammonia then falls to the condenser whereby it boils (due to the lower pressure in the evaporator) and vaporizes thereby absorbing heat which cools the refrigerator. The vapor then falls back the absorber vessel and is reabsorbed by the water solution and the cycle repeats. The unit is mounted onto a mobile stand that incorporates a work surface. The main components of unit are evaporator, condenser, separator, absorber, boiler & a heater. Instruments are provided for the measurement of temperature & power.

OF.TDH/34



         
Water Cooling Tower

A Cooling Tower is a device designed to reject heat absorbed through a cooling system to the atmosphere. The unit has been designed specially to demonstrate construction, design and operational characteristics of a modern cooling system to the students.
The unit resembles a full size forced draught cooling tower and it is actually an "open system" through which two streams of fluid (in this case air and water) pass and in which there is a mass transfer from one stream to the other. The unit is self-contained supplied with a heating load and a circulating pump.

OF.TDH/35



         
Mechanical Heat Pump

The Mechanical Heat Pump is designed for educational purposes and yields data in a quantitative and qualitative form in a manner easily understood by the student. The equipment is compact, bench mounted and instrumented sufficient for students to make measurement and perform calculations.
The purpose of experiment is to demonstrate the basic principles of refrigeration that is how heat can be transferred from a colder object to a hotter object. It consists of a standard compressor condenser unit, a watt meter, control instrumentation including glow meter, thermocouples and pressure gauges

OF.TDH/36



         
Tray Dryer

This unit explains the basic tray drying by Hot Air. The apparatus consists of a rectangular duct. Air is drawn in to the duct by an axial flow fan at the front end of the duct. Fan speed is adjustable. A bank of electric heater behind the fan raises air temperature.
Behind the heater is a Drying Compartment with transparent access doors. A rack of trays is suspended from a balance above the duct. Temperatures and humidity before and after the drying trays are measured.