MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES


OF.SMH/01



         
Compression of Spring

Springs are used in engineering to store energy or to provide restoring forces. Both compression and tension (extension) springs may be encountered. The deflection of a spring depends on the load applied to it, an observation enshrined in Hook's Law. The unit enables the students to find out the properties of spring and proves some basic laws of physics like Hooke's Law, Newton' Law & spring desing rules.
The unit Compression of Spring is a wall mounted apparatus having accurately divided scale and vernier. Set of springs of different springs sizes are provided.

OF.SMH/02



         
Extension Of Springs

Springs are used in engineering to store energy or to provide restoring forces. Both compression and tension (extension) springs may be encountered. The deflection of a spring depends on the load applied to it, an observation enshrined in Hook's Law. The unit enables the students to find out the properties of spring and proves some basic laws of physics like Hooke's Law, Newton' Law & spring desing rules.
The unit Compression of Spring is a wall mounted apparatus having accurately divided scale and vernier. Set of springs of different springs sizes are provided.

OF.SMH/03



         
HOOKE'S LAW

The primary function of this apparatus is to study Hook's Law and simple harmonic motion by studying the behavior of a mass on a spring. Your goal will be to extract a measure of the stiffness of one particular spring. Hook's Law states that the extension of the spring is directly proportion with the applied load within the elastic limit of body.
The apparatus consists of a helical spring which is hanging along a scale that is fitted on a metallic rod. The other end of the spring is free. A hanger and pointer are attached to its free end.

OF.SMH/04



         
Deflection Of Beam Apparatus

Beam is a structural member used to withstand load primarily by resisting bending. Internally beam experiences compressive, shear and tensile stresses.
The equipment is used for measurement of deflections and slopes of a beam under bending and compare with values calculated by differential equation and Area Moment Method. The beam has two adjustable height end supports with an interchangeable knife edges and a cantilever end clamp. Load hangers are used for point loads and a number of weights are used for uniform load. Deflections and slopes are measured by dial gauges.

OF.SMH/05



         
Shearing Force And Bending Moment Apparatus

The apparatus is basically a beam which is supported by the two vertical supports. These vertical supports can be moved along the beam section producing different support positions. Three point loads are available with hangers with which weights are applied.
One gauge is provided on the upper side and other on the lower side of the beam to measure the deflection in it. Beam is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending.

OF.SMH/06



         
Torsion Testing Machine

The bench top educational machine enables the students to study the torsion testing of varying material test specimen to failure.
Rods of different materials, length and diameter are used as a specimens. Test torque and angle of twist are measured. For adjustment of different length specimens the measurement jig can be slid along the frame. Torque is applied manually by hand wheel and worm gear.

OF.SMH/07



         
Deformation of Curved Beam

This apparatus is design to demonstrate phenomena of deflection in a curved bar. In this apparatus micrometer is attached to the frame to calculate the extent of deflection.
The study of how curved bars deflect is thus, important so as to estimate the total mechanical displacement of structures that incorporate curved sections. One of the more effective methods used to estimate deflections in curved bars come from Castiglione's first theorem or from a unit-load method.

OF.SMH/08



         
Creep Testing Machine

This apparatus explains the creep behaviors of different materials (Lead and PE) varying creep rates or temperature dependent creep behavior can be demonstrated in a simple creep rupture test.

OF.SMH/09



         
Impact Testing Machine

This apparatus used for quality testing and evaluation of the fracture behavior of metallic materials in accordance with DIN 50115. It is a part of a complete course on the fundamental principles of material testing.

OF.SMH/10



         
Universal Testing Machine 20KN

A Universal Testing Machine is used to test the tensile stress and compressive strength of materials. It is named after the fact that it can perform many standard tensile and compression tests on materials, components, and structures.
Additional source of power is not required for the unit. Load is applied with the help of a hand operated hydraulic system. Gauges are provided for the measurement of applied load and elongation of the test specimen.

OF.SMH/11



         
Universal Testing Machine 50KN

A Universal Testing Machine is used to test the tensile stress and compressive strength of materials. It is named after the fact that it can perform many standard tensile and compression tests on materials, components, and structures.
The vertical bench type unit is used for the generation of both tensile and compressive forces with the help of hydraulic operated system. Sensors are provided for the record of load and displacement.

OF.SMH/12



         
Column Buckling

The bench top unit is used for studying buckling on struts under various end conditions. A type of failure that is sometimes overlooked for a body subject to compressive load is that due to instability, called buckling.
The unit Column Buckling Apparatus consists of two vertical columns where load is applied by a screw via a sliding guide in a ball bushing. Pivot support is a wedge on a V-notch and built-in support is a cylinder in a socket. Load on the strut is measured by a load cell and deflection is measured by a dial gauge. Side loading is by a weight hanger and weights. Height of loading beam is Adjustable to accommodate different strut lengths.

OF.SMH/13



         
Journal Bearing Friction

The journal bearing friction apparatus is used to determine the coefficient of friction of different materials. Material bearing carrying assembly can be mounted on the shaft. The shaft can be balance with the hanger on one side and the rotating screw on the other side. While balancing the assembly the hanger has to be position at zero point of the scald arm. Then the upper arm is connected to the lower load carrying arm via circular aluminum wires.
Then the motor is started so that the frictional force can be applied to the scaled arm. The scaled arm can be balanced by moving the hanger on the either side or by changing the load in the hanger.

OF.SMH/14



         
Polariscope

This unit is used to view and measure the principle stress components and directions of principal stresses by photo elastic method for the plane stress condition at any given point in a photo elastic sample.

OF.SMH/15



         
Unsymmetrical Cantilever Apparatus

A member may be subjected to a bending moment, which acts on a plane inclined to the principal axis (say). This type of bending does not occur in a plane of symmetry of the cross section, it is called unsymmetrical bending. Since the problem related to flexure in general differs from symmetrical bending, it may be termed as skew bending.
The unit Unsymmetrical Cantilever Apparatus consists of a horizontal cantilever Rigidly clamped at its lower end to the main column which is attached to a rigid structure. Beams of different sections may be used. A loading head, located at the upper end of the column, can rotate freely around the vertical axis of the beam at 15ยบ intervals. A vertical load may be applied to the free end of the beam by means of a cord attached to the beam and passing over a pulley mounted on the rotating head. The deflections of the beam are measured by means of two dial gauges mounted perpendicularly to each other on the head. Two steel beams are supplied, one with rectangular section and the other one with L shape section.

OF.SMH/16



         
Torsion of Bar Apparatus

Torsional vibration is angular vibration of an object commonly a shaft along its axis of rotation. Torsional vibration is often a concern in power transmission systems using rotating shafts or couplings where it can cause failures if not controlled.
The unit Torsion of Bars enables the student to understand the rotary vibration torsion bars. The unit is basically a wall mounted base frame. Torsion bar is clamped in a chuck. The mass disc and the mass hanger are clamped to the torsion bar at its lower end using a chuck

OF.SMH/17



         
Fatigue Testing Machine

This apparatus explains the effects of fatigue. A simple cantilever specimen rotates at fixed/variable speed, including a sinusoidal variation of banding stress the equipment demonstration and experimentally confirm basic engineering principles.

OF.SMH/18



         
Analysis Machine

This unit is used to study the phenomenon of CAM Mechanisms. A motor is mounted on a rigid base and a CAM shaft is getting the motion from the motor through a coupling.
The CAM consists of 4 interchangeable CAM plates and 2 different tracers amass and spring are used to simulate the value a plotter allows the actual lift curve and stroboscope can be used to view the movement process and lift.

OF.SMH/19



         
Suspension Bridge Apparatus

The apparatus is mainly a bridge deck having hangers suspended along the length in such a way that flexible steel cable is constrained to be a parabolic curve. The suspension cable pass over the pulleys and the weights are attached to obtain the stable condition of the bridge.
The bridge loaded is through a number of weights, each having a specific loading value. Point loads can be applied by means of known weights, which can be positioned easily on the bridge deck.

OF.SMH/20



         
Three Hinged Arch Apparatus

In this apparatus two equal arches are used to develop a flat bridge deck .The arches are hinged at their outer most ends and at the crown hinge in the centre, creating the three hinges. Known weights can be applied on two different locations to investigate the pattern.
Hinges with fixed supports can absorb vertical and horizontal forces. The crown hinge at the center renders the entire arrangement statically determinate.

OF.SMH/21



         
Parabolic Arch Apparatus

In this apparatus the major components are arch, point or distributed load and dial gauge. Out of two ends of the arch one is fixed and the other one is on the roller bearing.
The purpose of dial gauge is to measure the deflection of arc under the horizontal thrust which is created by applying loads on the arch. Loads are applied through vertically suspended hangers with the arch at equal distances.

OF.SMH/22



         
Strain Gauge Trainer

This trance is used to introduce students about strain gauge measurements. It explains principal operation of strain gauges and the conversion methods between electronics raw dater and strain and force.
By using this trainer student will learn how to connect bridge type sensors, strain in bending, torsion and force measurement using load cell etc.

OF.SMH/23



         
Thin Wall Cylinder

A bench top mounted unit for studying the stress and strain in a thin walled cylinder under internal pressures. A pressure relief valve on the hand pump is factory set and tested. The main component of this bench top unit is a thin-walled aluminum cylinder. It is sealed on one side with a piston which can be repositioned with a hand wheel. This makes it possible to create either the dual-axis stress state of a sealed container or the single-axis stress state of a tube.
The cylinder is filled with oil and is sealed. The internal pressure is generated with a hand activated hydraulic pump and displayed on an easy-to-read pressure gauge. Five strain gauges are attached around the perimeter at angles of 0o, 30o, 45o, 60o and 90o to the cylinder axis to measure deformation. The unit is used in conjunction with the measuring amplifier.