MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

FORCED AND FRICTION


OF.FFH/01



         
Rubber Shear Apparatus

This apparatus is designed to study the shear strain in a rubber block due to the shear stress applied on it. When a force acts parallel to the surface of any object, it produces shear strain in it.
The unit consists of a frame that is attached to wall. A rubber block is affixed to its surface. The rubber block has a metallic strip fastened to its surface.
To produce shear strain in the rubber block, load is applied to metallic strip via a hanger. The unit has dial gauge attached to the upper end of the rubber block to measure the amount of deformation.

OF.FFH/02



         
Roof Truss Apparatus

This apparatus is used to measure the deformation in elements of roof truss. Whenever a load is applied to a roof truss, its members undergo a strain.
This unit consists of a base structure which provides the support locations for the roof truss.
Three metallic elements form a roof truss in a triangular shape. Load is applied from the top of the roof truss structure via a hanger. Each member has a dial gauge connected to it which shows the deformation produced due to applied load in each member.

OF.FFH/03



         
Three Wire Suspension Apparatus

The apparatus includes a free standing back plate mounted on a worktable, 3 wires at different angles, load hangers, weight and a universal ring. Wire suspension scheme is used to verify the equilibrium where sum of horizontal and vertical forces are zero.
Three wires attached at 45 degree; 60 degree and 90 degree meet at common ring. Load hanger is attached to the universal ring. Each wire includes a linear spring balance to get the value directly. Length of each suspender can be adjusted with the help of threaded rod attached to the spring balance. Known weights are available to apply load to the wires.

OF.FFH/04



         
Center Of Gravity

This apparatus is designed to demonstrate the concept of center of gravity to the students and recognize the importance of center of gravity in design and structural engineering.
In this apparatus students will determine center of gravity of different bodies of regular and irregular shapes, CG of irregular shapes are determined by Plumb Line Method using the 4 holes in the plate.

OF.FFH/05



         
Gyroscope Apparatus

This apparatus is designed to study the working of gyroscope. The gyroscope is a mechanical device which is capable of maintaining its axis.
The unit consists of a control box on the top of which entire unit is assembled. The gyroscope consists of a main frame, a weight at the center of the frame, two motors for rotation of the frame and metallic rod having weight which can be rotated at a controlled speed by the control panel. The rotational speeds of both these rotating parts are controlled by control panel and adjusted in such a way that the unit gets balanced.

OF.FFH/06



         
Rolling Disc On Inclined Plane

This apparatus is designed to calculate the moment of inertia of disc through rolling action. In this apparatus, discs of various materials are used to calculate moment of inertia. A metal carrier with a three point support is used as an inclined plane for the experiment; the different rotating masses are rolled down this plane.
The inclined plane can be precisely aligned using integrated spirit levels and three bolts. The angle of inclination is adjusted using an adjustment bolt. A ruler is integrated directly into the inclined plane for measuring the distance. The steel rotating masses each have self centering conical pins.

OF.FFH/07



         
Centrifugal Force Apparatus

This unit is designed to study the characteristics of centrifugal force. Whenever a body rotates, it experiences centrifugal force. This force tends to push the body out of the circle. Its magnitude is directly proportional to mass and velocity of the object while it is inversely proportional to the radius of the circle in which the body rotates.
The unit consists of a small metallic rod on which the mass is placed. The rod is placed in a guided path by means of two grooves. It can be rotated at any speed with a control panel that controls the rotational speed of the rod. The force acting on rod due to the mass attached to it is displayed on control panel by force indicator.

OF.FFH/08



         
Conservation Of Angular Momentum

This apparatus is designed to demonstrate the phenomena of conservation of angular momentum and its application and importance in structural engineering and mechanics.
Apparatus includes rotating bar with bearing attached to the vertical base. This bar has two dead weights at is opposite ends when the weights are at the larger radius, rotation will be maximum and when the weights are smaller radius, rotation will be minimum to conserve rotational momentum.

OF.FFH/09



         
Friction On Inclined Plane Apparatus

This apparatus is used to measure the co-efficient of friction of different materials at different angles. The friction increases due to the roughness of surfaces.
The unit consists of a plane surface which has a pulley at its one end. The plane can be set to any angle with the help of pointer and protector. Blocks of different materials are available with this apparatus. A cord is tied to the block and at the other end of cord, a hanger is tied. The cord is passed over the pulley and weights are placed in the hanger so that the block starts moving.

OF.FFH/10



         
Forces In A JIB Crane Apparatus

This unit is designed to study forces in jib crane elements. Jib crane has two elements which are attached to a vertical rod. The lower element is called jib and the upper element is termed as tie. Load is applied at the junction of jib and tie to produce tension and compression in tie and jib respectively.
The unit consists of a metallic rod which provides the support locations for jib and tie. Load is applied via a hanger on the junction of jib and tie. To measure the deformation in jib and tie, dial gauges are connected to both elements.

OF.FFH/11



         
Toggle Joint Apparatus

This unit is designed to study the characteristics of toggle joint. Toggle joint is a structure which has three members connected in a triangular shape. Two of its members have fixed lengths but third member (base member) has a variable length. Its length can change due to the load applied at the top of the triangular structure.
The unit consists of a metallic base structure which provides the support locations for the structure. Three members are connected in a triangular shape to form a toggle joint. The base structure is fixed at one end but its other end is movable. It has a spring balance which shows the elongation and hence the force acting on movable end due to the load applied on the top of the structure via a hanger.

OF.FFH/12



         
Forces In Simple Bar Structure Apparatus

Simple bar structure consists of bars whose axes are fitted to a given plane and are acted upon by forces in the same plane.
In simple bar structure, bars are only subjected to tensile or compression and load is applied at the nodes. These members are jointed together by dicks and these joints are free to move. Deflection in the bar can be calculated by the leaf springs in the bars. Final deflection is calculated by formulating the system of equations.

OF.FFH/13



         
Fundamentals of Statics Apparatus

This apparatus is designed to demonstrate the basic principle of statics like resolution of forces, equilibrium of forces and moments and law of levers. Any part required to attach for the experiment can be quickly attached to the rails around the edges. The imprinted line grid and grid-marked lever rods provide quick precise assembly.
The lengths marked on the grid make it easy to define angles. A wide range of mountings, such as cables, rods, pulleys, torque discs, pivot bearings and the like, can be easily fixed in place and combined. The versatility of the statics experimental unit helps students to explore their creativity in developing their own experiments.

OF.FFH/14



         
Forces In Truss Apparatus

This unit is used to study the effect of load on various elements of truss. A truss is a structure which can bear high loads due to the fact that it has ability to divide the load among its elements. Therefore it becomes a reliable and stable structure.
The unit consists of a metallic frame which provides the support locations for the truss structure. The elements of six different sizes are available to make desired structure of truss. These elements are joined together via pin joints. A dial gauge is also present in the unit to measure the deformation of the structure due to the applied load.

OF.FFH/15



         
Two Arm Lever

This apparatus is designed to demonstrate the equilibrium of moment of two arm lever. Moment occurring at the both ends of the lever is balanced by applying load at different distances from the central pivoted point.
In this apparatus beam is centrally mounted by the vertically support so this beam act as two arm lever. Lever is scaled and riding weights are provided at both ends of the lever. Equilibrium is achieved by applying load on both side of the arms and adjusting their distance from mean position.

OF.FFH/16



         
Polygon And Forces Apparatus

This apparatus is majorly a round disc which is placed horizontally on three legs attached to a foundation. A 360 protractor is set centrally on the plate and three pulleys on clamps permit the load hanger cords to run toward a ring dropped over the center. The apparatus is best to express the conditions of equilibrium for three coplanar forces acting on a circular disc.
Conditions of equilibrium can be obtained by centralizing a small ring available over the central pin with cords to load hangers where the loads and lines of action are variable. In this way, it is possible to construct the triangle of forces in equilibrium and to find the resultant of two known forces.

OF.FFH/17



         
Work Done By Variable Force Apparatus

The apparatus consists of the arm, hanger with loads, spring balance and protractor scale attached to the support board. The apparatus mainly focuses on the fact that work done by a variable force can be determined by measuring the area under the graph of force and distance travelled.
One end of the arm is fixed and its position is indicated by the protractor. Other end of arm carries the load hanger, and is restrained by spring balance that is perpendicular to the arm. The spring balance is also fixed with a nail. Under the application of load, the movement of arm can be read easily.

OF.FFH/18



         
Coriolis Force Apparatus

The Coriolis effect is defined as the apparent deflection of objects moving in a straight path relative to the earth's surface. Its strength is proportional to the speed of the earth's rotation at different latitudes but it has an impact on moving object across the globe.
A horizontal rotating arm sits on top of the main base unit and rotates in a horizontal plane. Rotating arm has a water tank with submersible pump which projects a jet of water in to radial direction. The degree of deflection can be measured by means of the scale on water tank. Instrumentation is done for the display of speed of water jet & speed of rotation of horizontal arm.

OF.FFH/19



         
Rope Belt Friction Apparatus

This apparatus is designed to demonstrate the working of various types of belts. With this apparatus coefficient of friction of belts can be determined and comparison can be made.
The apparatus consists of two pulleys coupled with shaft through bearings. Belt is placed on the pulleys and load is applied on the both ends of the belts. Coefficient of friction of the belt is determined by changing the angle of lap of the belts with pulley and varying the load on the hanger.

OF.FFH/20



         
Belt Cord Friction Apparatus

This unit is designed to determine the co-efficient of friction of different types of belts. The belts are one of the means of transferring energy from one object to other. There performance and life is greatly affected by the friction. If the friction is too large, a big part of energy will be wasted to overcome that friction and the belt will undergo a lot of wear as well. On the other hand, friction is important for performance of belt as well because if there is low friction between belt and pulley, the slippage will occur.
The unit consists of a pulley fitted on a frame. The pulley has grooves for different types of belts. The belt is passed over the pulley at desired angle and load is applied on it via hanger. The pulley is then made to rotate against that load by the help of a cord which has a hanger and weights on its one end.

OF.FFH/21



         
Brake Drum Friction Apparatus

In this apparatus drum is wounded by the cord externally, is machined to plain aluminum. A cord is wrapped around the perimeter of the brake drum and the free end of the cord runs over a pulley at the other end of the base and terminates with a load hanger. Torque is applied to the brake drum by using the calibrated weights set provided and the load hanger.

OF.FFH/22



         
Bearing Friction Apparatus

This apparatus is designed to demonstrate the categorical difference between sliding and rolling friction and its application for different industrial uses. Apparatus uses different types of plain and rolling bearing of different materials like iron and bronze.
Apparatus includes flywheel mounted upon an axle. Axle is supported in a plain or ball bearing and bearing housing is attached with wall bracket. Torque is applied by putting dead weights on the flywheel using hanger which corresponds to the frictional torque when motion begins.

OF.FFH/23



         
Pivot Friction Apparatus

The apparatus consists of a rotating circular disc spinner attached onto the end of a vertical shaft. The shaft is held vertical within a robust wall bracket that must be attached to a rigid wall. Torsion is applied to the disc through a pair of diametrically opposite loaded cords and pulleys. At the inferior tip of the shaft, a particular fixing has been created to accept an assortment of end pivots.
Different mating seatings has been manufactured for the end pivots. Additional Weights are added to the load hangers to calculate the necessary parameters.

OF.FFH/24



         
Clutch Plate Friction Apparatus

Clutch plates are used to connect and disconnect driven part from the driving part temporarily. This apparatus demonstrates the concept of clutch friction using different types of clutch plates.
It consists of flat disc of leather against which a clutch plate is loaded. The clutch plate is secured by screws to the effort pulley. A torque is applied to the effort pulley by dead weight using a spreader beam and two load cords. The main load on the effort pulley and thus the clutch plate is applied by a loading arm system via a thrust bearing.

OF.FFH/25



         
Dry, Rough and Lubricated Friction Apparatus

The apparatus consists of a main shaft with three identically dimensioned discs fixed on to it. The variable between the discs are their test surfaces. One disc is plain (fine machined surface) the second is the same but has a tub underneath that can be filled with a grease or liquid lubricant and the third disc has a rough finish. The main shaft has a pulley fixed on the end to which an effort load can be applied to overcome the normal force between the contacting surfaces. The apparatus has a braking lever which can be positioned over one of the testing discs at a time. The breaking lever has the capacity to hold a variety of test samples made from different materials as well as a roller bearing that is supplied with the unit. With the breaking force set the effort hanger's mass is increased until the pulley starts to rotate and the masses fall at a constant rate. From this, forces can be calculated and a friction coefficient for the brake material or other material and disc surface can be represents as a graphical representation or calculated.

OF.FFH/26



         
Belt Drive and Belt Friction

The belt drives are machine elements that are classed as traction mechanisms in the field of transmission or conversion elements. They transfer torque and speed between guiding members such as wheels or pulleys. The motion is transferred by traction mechanisms that can only absorb tensile forces. Toothed belts and chains deliver positive transmission of movements. Traction mechanisms such as cables, flat belts and V-belts, on the contrary, allow for non-positive transmission. In non-positive belt drives, the circumferential force between the belt and the pulley is transmitted according to the principle of cable friction. Cable friction arises due to tangential static-friction forces at the points where the cable is in contact with the wheel or the pulley. Eytelwein's cable friction formula is used to calculate both cable and belt friction. The pulley is mounted on ball bearings and is powered by a crank handle. Its flywheel mass favours an even rotation of the pulley. Two spring balances detect the tensile forces on the respective belt ends. This makes it possible to precisely adjust the belt tension using a threaded spindle. One flat belt, a V-belt and a cable belong to the scope of delivery.

OF.FFH/27



         
Clutch Plate Friction Apparatus

Clutch plates are used to connect and disconnect driven part from the driving part temporarily. This apparatus demonstrates the concept of clutch friction using different types of clutch plates.
It consists of flat disc of leather against which a clutch plate is loaded. The clutch plate is secured by screws to the effort pulley. A torque is applied to the effort pulley by dead weight using a spreader beam and two load cords. The main load on the effort pulley and thus the clutch plate is applied by a loading arm system via a thrust bearing.

OF.FFH/28



         
Clutch Plate Friction Apparatus

Clutch plates are used to connect and disconnect driven part from the driving part temporarily. This apparatus demonstrates the concept of clutch friction using different types of clutch plates.
It consists of flat disc of leather against which a clutch plate is loaded. The clutch plate is secured by screws to the effort pulley. A torque is applied to the effort pulley by dead weight using a spreader beam and two load cords. The main load on the effort pulley and thus the clutch plate is applied by a loading arm system via a thrust bearing.